Voltajes y frecuencias por país


Voltajes y frecuencias por país

Voltajes y frecuencias por país

Contenido

Contactos de pared

Enchufes.

El sistema de letras es el empleado por literatura del gobierno de los Estados Unidos[1] , donde se define cada tipo de enchufe (en ocasiones con errores y ambigüedades). Si a un enchufe y contacto le corresponden la misma letra, por lo general se acoplarán, aunque no siempre. Información más actualizada se encuentra en el IEC Technical Report 60083.[2]

Rangos de voltaje

Voltajes y frequencias:     220-240V/60Hz      220-240V/50Hz      100-127V/60Hz      100-127V/50Hz

Hay diferencia entre el voltaje suministrado (nominal) y el empleado por el equipo (de utilización), siendo que este último es 3%-5% menor que el anterior por caídas del mismo, por ejemplo, un motor de 200 V conectado a una red de 208 V.

Tabla de voltajes y frequencias

Nota: La tabla puede ordenarse alfabéticamente o numéricamente con el ícono Sort none.gif.

Region Enchufes Voltaje Frequencia Comentarios
Afganistán C, D, F 240 V 50 Hz Variación entre 160 y 280 V.
Albania C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Argelia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Samoa Americana A, B, F, I 120 V 60 Hz
Andorra C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Angola C 220 V 50 Hz
Anguilla A (maybe B) 110 V 60 Hz
Antigua A, B 230 V 60 Hz En el aeropuerto se reporta 110 V.
Argentina C, I 220 V 50 Hz Live and neutral are reversed for socket outlet type I in comparison to most other countries.
Armenia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Aruba A, B, F 127 V 60 Hz Lago Colony 115 V.
Australia I 230 V 50 Hz As of 2000, the mains supply voltage specified in AS 60038 is 230 V with a tolerance of +10% -6%.[3] This was done for voltage harmonisation - however 240 V is within tolerance and is commonly found. Mains voltage is still popularly referred to as being "two-forty volts". Bathrooms in hotels will often have a type I, C and A socket marked "for shavers only" as pictured on the right.
Austria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Azerbaiyán C 220 V 50 Hz
Azores C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Bahamas A, B 120 V 60 Hz along with 50 Hz in some outlying areas
Bahréin G 230 V 50 Hz Awali 110 V, 60 Hz.
Islas Baleares C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Bangladesh A, C, D, G, K 220 V 50 Hz
Barbados A, B 115 V 50 Hz
Bielorrusia C 220 V 50 Hz
Bélgica C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Belice A, B, G 110 V
and
220 V
60 Hz
Benín C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Bermuda A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Bhutan D, F, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Bolivia A, C 220 V 50 Hz La Paz y Viacha 115 V.
Bonaire 127 V 50 Hz Receptacle is combination of B&C without ground connector.
Bosnia y Herzegovina C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Botswana D, G, M 231 V 50 Hz
Brasil A, B, C, I 127 V
and
220 V
60 Hz Type I is becoming common for 220 V outlets and appliances in 127 V areas. Dual-voltage wiring is rather common for high-powered appliances, such as clothes dryers and electric showers which tend to be 220 V even in 127 V areas. Depending on the area, the exact voltage might be 115 V, 127 V, or 220 V. The A, B and C types are sometimes together (flat with rounder ends and ground pin) so that an A, B or C types can be used. Also note that by 2009, Brazil will be converting to the IEC 60906-1 international plug which looks similar to type J but is not compatible.
Brunéi G 240 V 50 Hz
Bulgaria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Burkina Faso C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Burundi C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Camboya A, C, G 230 V 50 Hz
Camerún C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Canadá A, B 120 V 60 Hz Standardized at 120 V. 240 V used for applications such as clothes driers, air conditioning, electric cook-stoves and machinery. Buildings with more than one branch circuit must have both voltages. Type A outlets are for repairs only, type B now required for new construction and renovation. A 20-Amp type B but with a T-slot is used in kitchens in new construction.[4]
Canarias C, E, F, L 220 V 50 Hz
Cabo Verde C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Islas Caimán A, B 120 V 60 Hz
República Centroafricana C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Chad D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Islas del Canal C, G 230 V 50 Hz
Chile C, L 220 V 50 Hz
República Popular China (sólo parte continental) A, C, I 220 V 50 Hz Most wall outlets simultaneously support Types A and I. Some outlets support both Type A and Type C (the holes in the outlets are flat in the middle and round on the sides) so that either a Type A or a Type C plug can be used. The Type I outlet is next to the Type A & C outlet. Type A outlets only fit plugs with pins of the same width—a polarized Type A plug requires an adapter. NOTE: no matter the type of plug the socket will accept, voltage in china is always 220 volts. See photo at right.
Colombia A, B 120 V 60 Hz Equipos de aire acondicionado, restaurantes, cocinas y hornos usan fuentes de 240 V. Cableado, prácticas y estándares siguen el Código Eleétrico Colombiano (esencialmente traducción del USA National Electric Code).
Comoros C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Congo-Brazzaville C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Congo-Kinshasa C, D 220 V 50 Hz
Islas Cook I 240 V 50 Hz
Costa Rica A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Costa de Marfil C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Croacia C, F 230 V 50 Hz 3 fases de 400 V AC para aplicaciones de uso rudo.
Cuba A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Chipre G 240 V 50 Hz
República Checa C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Dinamarca C, E, K 230 V 50 Hz Type E is added from July 2008.[5]
Djibouti C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Dominica D, G 230 V 50 Hz
República Dominicana A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Timor del Este C, E, F, I 220 V 50 Hz
Ecuador A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Egipto C 220 V 50 Hz
El Salvador A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Guinea Ecuatorial C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Eritrea C 230 V 50 Hz
Estonia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Etiopía C, E, F, L 220 V 50 Hz
Islas Faroe C, K 220 V 50 Hz
Falkland Islands G 240 V 50 Hz
Fiyi I 240 V 50 Hz
Finlandia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Francia C, E 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Contactos de tipo C prohibidos en nuevas instalaciones por mas de 10 años.
Guayana Francesa C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Franja de Gaza C, H 230 V 50 Hz (see Israel in this list)
Gabon C 220 V 50 Hz
Gambia G 230 V 50 Hz
Georgia C 220 V 50 Hz
Alemania C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Type F ("Schuko", short for "Schutzkontakt") is standard. Type C Plugs ("Euro-Stecker") are common, especially for low-power devices. Type C wall sockets are very uncommon, and exist only in very old installations.
Ghana D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Gibraltar G, K 240 V 50 Hz Type K was used in the Europort development by the Danish builders. Otherwise the United Kingdom fittings are used.
Grecia C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Type F is the de-facto standard for new installations' sockets. Type C sockets exist only in old installations. Light appliances use type C plug while more electricity-consuming ones use type E&F or F plugs.
Groenlandia C, K 220 V 50 Hz
Grenada G 230 V 50 Hz
Guadalupe C, D, E 230 V 50 Hz
Guam A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Guatemala A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Guinea C, F, K 220 V 50 Hz
Guinea-Bissau C 220 V 50 Hz
Guyana A, B, D, G 240 V 60 Hz
Haiti A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Honduras A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Hong Kong G is used in almost all products, while M is (rarely) used when required current rating is between 13~15A. D is now obsolete in Hong Kong. 220 V 50 Hz Largely based on UK system. Occasionally, a 'shaver' socket (similar to Type C) is found in some bathrooms that provides low current to some other plug types. These almost always have a 110 V socket and a 220 V socket in the same unit, or a switch to select voltage, which are sometimes labelled as 110 V and 220 V. This duo installation is not as common in HK as in the UK. There was a smaller 2A version of type D, now obsolete.
Hungría C, F 230 V (formerly 220V) 50 Hz
Islandia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
India C, D, M 230 V 50 Hz The standardardised voltage used in India is 230V/50 Hz with a tolerance varying from 216V to 253V. Some hotels provide dual receptacles for foreign appliances giving both 120V and 230V.
Indonesia C, F, G 127 V
and
230 V
50 Hz Type G socket/plug is less common.
Irán C, F 220 V 50 Hz Type C wall sockets are less common, and exist only in older installations. Type F is used for new installations. Type C Plugs are common for low-power devices.
Iraq C, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Irlanda G found in all normal installations - Legacy systems (rare/extinct): (D and M (as in the UK); and type F (Schuko) ) 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz G Sockets and plugs standard as defined by NSAI I.S. 401 (Plug) I.S. 411 (Socket outlet). Type F ("Side Earth") plugs occasionally seen in old installations probably because much of the early Irish electrical network was heavily influenced by Siemens. ' A 'shaver' socket (similar to Type C) is sometimes found in bathrooms that will provide low current to some other plug types. These almost always have a 110 V socket and a 230 V socket in the same unit, or a switch to select voltage, which are sometimes labelled as 115 V and 230 V. The G type socket often has a on-off switch on the socket. 110 V centre point earthed transformers are often used for industrial portable tools.
Isla de Man C, G 240 V 50 Hz
Israel C, H, M 230 V 50 Hz The standard for H plugs and sockets was recently modified to use round pins, so most modern sockets accept both type C and type H plugs. Type M sockets are used for air conditioners. Identical plugs and sockets also used in the Palestinian National Authority areas.
Italia C, F, L 230 V (formerly 220v)[6] 50 Hz
Jamaica A, B 110 V 50 Hz
Japón A, B 100 V 50 Hz
and
60 Hz
Eastern Japan 50 Hz (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, and Sendai); Western Japan 60 Hz (Okinawa, Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Nagoya, Hiroshima). Older buildings have nonpolarized sockets, in which case American polarized plugs (one prong wider than the other) would not fit. Many buildings do not have the ground pin. Sockets and switches fit in American-sized standard boxes.
Jordania B, C, D, F, G, J 230 V 50 Hz
Kazajistán C, E, F 220 V 50 Hz No official standard. Voltage tolerance is 220 V ±10%. Actual voltage may vary (usually 150-200 V) because of unstable electrical system.
Kenia G 240 V 50 Hz
Kiribati I 240 V 50 Hz
Kuwait C, G 240 V 50 Hz
Kyrgyzstan C 220 V 50 Hz
Laos A, B, C, E, F 230 V 50 Hz
Letonia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Líbano A, B, C, D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Lesoto M 220 V 50 Hz
Liberia A, B, C, E, F 120 V
and
240 V
50 Hz Previously 60 Hz, now officially 50 Hz. Many private power plants are still 60 Hz. A & B are used for 110v; C & F are used for 230/240v. Much of the centralized power system was destroyed during the civil wars starting in 1990, and public power supplies are still limited. Local supplies may vary and may not match the usual voltage for a particular wall socket.[7]
Libia D, L 127 V 50 Hz Barce, Benghazi, Derna, Sebha & Tobruk 230 V.
Lituania C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Liechtenstein C, J 230 V 50 Hz Swiss Norm, C only in the form CEE 7/16.
Luxemburgo C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Macao D, M, G, a small number of F 220 V 50 Hz No official standards there. However, in the Macao-HK Ferry Pier built by Portuguese Government before handover the standard was E & F. After handover, Macau adopted G in both government and private buildings.
Republica de Macedonia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Madagascar C, D, E, J, K 127 V
and
220 V
50 Hz
Madeira C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Malawi G 230 V 50 Hz
Malaysia G (but M for air conditioners and clothes dryers) 240 V 50 Hz The official mains power voltage is AC 230 V with the tolerance of +10%,-6%.[8] However, the supplied voltage remains at 240 V (except Penang at 230 V), as the supplied voltage is within the allowed tolerance. Type C plugs are very common with audio/video equipment. Plugged into Type G outlets using widely-available adapters or forced in by pushing down the shutter. The latter is widely practised, although hazardous.
Maldivas A, D, G, J, K, L 230 V 50 Hz
Mali C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Malta G 230 V 50 Hz
Martinica C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritania C 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritius C, G 230 V 50 Hz
México A, B 127 V 60 Hz Type B is becoming more common. Voltage can legally vary by +/- 10% (giving a range of 114 to 140 volts). Split phase is commonly available and local electricians are apt to wire both to a type A/B socket to give 240 V for air conditioning or washing machine/dryers.
Micronesia A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Moldova C, F 220-230 V 50 Hz Compatible with European and former Soviet Union (GOST) standards.
Mónaco C, D, E, F 127 V
and
220 V
50 Hz
Mongolia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Montenegro C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Montserrat (Leeward Is.) A, B 230 V 60 Hz
Marruecos C, E 127 V
and
220 V
50 Hz Conversion to 220 V only underway.
Mozambique C, F, M 220 V 50 Hz Type M found especially near the border with South Africa, including in the capital, Maputo.
Myanmar/Burma C, D, F, G 230 V 50 Hz Type G found primarily in better hotels. Also, many major hotels chains are said to have outlets that will take Type I plugs and perhaps other types.
Namibia D, M 220 V 50 Hz
Nauru I 240 V 50 Hz
Nepal C, D, M 230 V 50 Hz
Países Bajos C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Antillas Neerlandesas A, B, F 127 V
and
220 V
50 Hz Isla de San Martin 120 V, 60 Hz; Saba & Sint Eustatius 110 V, 60 Hz, A, maybe B
Nueva Caledonia E 220 V 50 Hz
Nueva Zelandia I 230 V 50 Hz Electricity Regulations 1997 states supply voltage is 230 V ±6%
Nicaragua A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Níger A, B, C, D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Nigeria D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Corea del Norte C 220 V 50 Hz
Noruega C, F 230 V 50 Hz

IT earthing system

Okinawa A, B 100 V 60 Hz Military facilities 120 V.
Omán C, G 240 V 50 Hz Voltage variations common.
Pakistán C, D, M, G 230 V 50 Hz Official standard is 230 V / 50 Hz. Voltage tolerance is 230 V ±5% (218 V to 242 V). Frequency tolerance 50 Hz ±2% (49 Hz to 51 Hz) But Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) is 240 V / 50 Hz.
Type C and D Plug / Socket are common for low-power devices. Type M Plug / Socket is common for air conditioners and high-power devices. Type G Plug / Socket is less common.
Panamá A, B 110 V 60 Hz Panama City 120 V.
Papua Nueva Guinea I 240 V 50 Hz
Paraguay C 220 V 50 Hz
Perú A, B, C 220 V 60 Hz Talara 110/220 V; Arequipa 50 Hz
Filipinas A, B 220 V 60 Hz Most plugs and outlets are Type A, but some are B. Sockets and switches are built to USA dimensions and fit USA sized wall boxes. Some areas have 110V as in Baguio.
Polonia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Portugal C, F 220 V[9] 50 Hz
Puerto Rico A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Qatar D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Réunion E 220 V 50 Hz
Rumania C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Virtually identical to German standards. Most household sockets still compatible with East European standards (4.0 mm pins). Industrial appliances (washing machines, welding equipment) use 3-phase 380V AC supply.
Rusia C, F 220 V 50 Hz USSR (along with much of Eastern Europe) used type GOST sockets with 4.0 mm pins instead of the 4.8mm standard used by West European (Schuko) Plugs. Now "Soviet" sockets could be seen mainly in old houses and in countryside. Obsolete standard 127 V/50 Hz AC is used in some remote villages. Elsewhere it was replaced in 1970s by the 220V standard. Industrial appliances use 3-phase 380V AC supply.
Rwanda C, J 230 V 50 Hz
San Kitts y Nevis A, B, D, G 110 V
and
230 V
60 Hz Region plug is same as United States (2 pin) 110-120 V
Santa Lucía (Winward Is.) G 240 V 50 Hz
San Vincente (Winward Is.) A, C, E, G, I, K 230 V 50 Hz
Santo Tomé y Príncipe C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Arabia Saudita A, B, F, G 127 V
and
220 V
60 Hz
Senegal C, D, E, K 230 V 50 Hz
Serbia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Seychelles G 240 V 50 Hz
Sierra Leona D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Singapur G (but M for air conditioners and clothes dryers) 230 V 50 Hz Type C are used for audio/video equipment and plug adapters are widely available.
Eslovaquia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Eslovenia C, F 230 V 50 Hz 3-phase 400 V AC used for heavy duty applications.
Somalia C 220 V 50 Hz
Sudáfrica M 220 V 50 Hz Grahamstown & Port Elizabeth 250 V; also found in King Williams Town
Corea del Sur A, B, C, F (Types A & B are used for 110-volt installations and/or found in very old buildings. Types C & F are used for 220 Volts.) 220 V 60 Hz Type F is normally found in offices, airports, hotels and some upscale homes; while Type C (type CEE 7/17) is the norm in most households. 220 volt power is distributed by using both "live" poles of a 110 volt system (neutral is not used). 110 V/60 Hz power with plugs A & B (under Japanese colonial influence) was previously used but has already been phased out. Some residents install their own step-down transformers and dedicated circuits, so that they can use 110 V appliances imported from Japan or North America. Most hotels only have 220 V outlets, but some hotels offer both 110 V (Type A or B) and 220 V (Type C or F) outlets. Switches and outlets fit American-sized boxes.
España C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Sri Lanka D, M, G 230 V 50 Hz Increased use of type G in new houses/establishments. Mainly in Colombo and high end hotels.
Sudan C, D 230 V 50 Hz
Surinam C, F 127 V 60 Hz
Swazilandia M 230 V 50 Hz
Suecia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Suiza C, J 230 V 50 Hz C only in the form CEE 7/16.
Siria C, E, L 220 V 50 Hz
Tahití A, B, E 110 V
and
220 V
60 Hz/50 Hz Marquesas Islands 50 Hz[10]
Taiwán A, B 110 V 60 Hz Most outlets are Type A. When an outlet is Type B, the ground (earth) holes are usually not connected to anything. Most appliances have Type A plugs, but some appliances have Type B plugs. Sockets and switches are built to USA dimensions and fit USA sized wall boxes. Dedicated sockets provide 220V for air conditioning units.
Tajikistan C, I 220 V 50 Hz
Tanzania D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Tailandia A, B, C, F 220 V 50 Hz Outlets in hotels and newer buildings are usually a combination of types B and C which will accept plug types A, B and C while outlets in older buildings are usually type A. An equal proportion of appliances have type A or C plugs, or B if an Earth connection is required. Type F is mainly for high-powered appliances such as air conditioners, kettles and cookers. A 3-pin plug that only fits in B/C sockets is also seeing increased use, it differs from type B by having all the pins round.[11]
Togo C 220 V 50 Hz Lome 127 V.
Tonga I 240 V 50 Hz
Trinidad y Tobago A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Tunisia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Turkey C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Turkmenistán B, F 220 V 50 Hz
Uganda G 240 V 50 Hz
Ucrania C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Emiratos Árabes C, D, G 220 V 50 Hz
Reino Unido G (D and M seen in very old installs and specialist applications) 230 V (formerly 240 V) 50 Hz Voltage tolerance of 230 V +10%/−6% (216.2 V to 253 V), widened to 230 V ±10% (207 V to 253 V) in 2008. The system supply voltage remains centered on 240 V.[12] A 'shaver' socket (similar to Type C) is sometimes found in bathrooms that will provide low current to some other plug types. These almost always have a 110 V socket and a 240 V socket in the same unit, or a switch to select voltage, which are sometimes labelled as 115 V and 230 V. The G type socket usually has a on-off switch on the socket. 110 V centre point earthed transformers are often used for industrial portable tools. IEC 60309 plugs and connectors are used in industrial and construction locations as well as for outdoor use in domestic and other business premises. Plug types D and M still in preferred use for theatre and TV stage lighting applications due to lack of internal fuse.
Estados Unidos A, B 120 V 60 Hz Standardized at 120 V. Electricity suppliers aim to keep most customers supplied between 114 and 126 V most of the time. 240 V/60 Hz used for heavy duty applications such as air conditioners, clothes dryers, stoves, ovens, and water heaters. Buildings with more than two branch circuits will have both 120 and 240 V available. Type B outlets are now required by code in new construction and renovation. A T-slot Type B is rated for 20 amperes for use in kitchens or other areas using large 120 V appliances.
Uruguay C, F, I, L 230 V (formerly 220 V) 50 Hz Type F becoming more common as a result of computer use. Neutral and live wires are reversed, as in Argentina.
Uzbekistán C, I 220 V 50 Hz
Vanuatu I 230 V 50 Hz
Venezuela A, B 120 V 60 Hz Type G found in household 220V service only for air conditioning and some high power appliances.
Vietnam A, C 220 V 50 Hz Type A is the norm in Southern Vietnam and Type C is the norm in Northern Vietnam (according to the pre-unification border at 17 degrees North). Type G is found only in some new luxury hotels, primarily those built by Singaporean and Hong Kong developers. But Type G is never found in homes, shops, or offices.
Islas Vírgenes A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Samoa Occidental I 230 V 50 Hz
Yemen A, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zambia C, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zimbabwe D, G 220 V 50 Hz
A (NEMA 1-15 USA 2 pin)
B (NEMA 5-15 USA 3 pin)
C (CEE 7/16)
C (CEE 7/17 Euro 2 pin)
D (BS546 5 A version of Type M )
E (French)
F (CEE 7/4 "Schukostecker" or "Side Earth")
E+F (CEE 7/7)
G (BS1363 Fused 13 A)
H (SI 32 Israel)
I (AS-3112 Argentina / Australia / New Zealand)
Archivo:I plug Chinese.jpg
I, plus sockets for A, C and I (China)
J (SEV-1011 Switzerland)
K (SRAF 1962/DB Denmark)
L (CEI 23-16 Italy)
M (15 A version of Type D BS546)

Referencias

  1. Electric current abroad
  2. IEC/TR 60083: Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC. International Electrotechnical Commission, May 2004. This 359-page technical report describes all national standards for domestic plugs and sockets. Its 1963 predecessor, CEE Publication 7, covered only the plugs and sockets of continental Europe.
  3. AS60038-2000 Standards Australia - Standard Voltages
  4. Rick Gilmour et al., editor, Canadian Electrical Code Part I, Twentieth Edition, C22.1-06 Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, Ontario Canada (2002) ISBN 1-55436-023-4, diagram 1 and rule 26-700
  5. Danish Safety Technology Authority (Sikkerhedsstyrelsen)
  6. Enel
  7. «History». Liberia Electricity Corporation. Consultado el 2008-10-26.
  8. Guidelines For Electrical Wiring In Residential Buildings - Energy Commission of Malaysia.
  9. Ministérios da Indústria e Energia e do Equipamento Social - Decreto Regulamentar n.º 90/84
  10. http://users.telenet.be/worldstandards/electricity.htm#plugs_f Electricity around the world
  11. http://www.leoni-electrical-appliances.com/Plugs.6775.0.html?&L=1&cHash=089cb7b2c2&mode=DETAILS&cpid=1990&uid=241
  12. Lighting Industry Federation Ltd (2001) LIF Technical Statement No. 15,European Voltage Harmonisation. Accessed 2008-08-20

Véase también

Enlaces externos

Obtenido de "Voltajes y frecuencias por pa%C3%ADs"

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