Danaus (Zoología)


Danaus (Zoología)

Danaus (Zoología)

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Danaus
Plain tiger m up.JPG
Macho de Danaus chrysippus
Clasificación científica
Reino: Animalia
Filo: Arthropoda
Clase: Insecta
Orden: Lepidoptera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea
Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia: Danainae
Tribu: Danaini
Género: Danaus
(Kluk, 1780)
Especie tipo
Papilio plexippus
Linnaeus, 1758
Especies
  • 12-13 especies. Ver texto
Oruga de Danaus chrysippus en Calotropis sp., Hyderabad, India

Danaus, comunmente tigre, monarca, y reina, es un género de mariposas en la tribu Danaini. Se las halla mundialmente, incluyendo Norteamérica, Sudamérica, África, Asia, Indonesia, Australia. Por otras tigres ver el género Parantica.

Contenido

Taxonomía

Se sigue la revisión de Smith et al. (2005), aceptándose 12 especies provisionalmeente en base a morfología, a las subunidades protéicas I mtDNA 12S rRNA y a citocromo c oxidasa, y a las subunidades α de datos de secuencia de ADN, ADN nuclear 18S rRNA y al EF1 :

  • Danaus affinis Fabricius, 1775 -- tigre malayo
  • Danaus chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758 -- tigre común, o reina africana
  • Danaus cleophile Godart, 1819 -- monarca de Jamaica
  • Danaus dorippus Klug, 1845 -- tigre Dorippus, formalmente incluida en D. chrysippus
  • Danaus eresimus Cramer, 1777 -- mariposa soldado, reina del trópico, incluye a D. plexaure
  • Danaus erippus Cramer, 1775 -- monarca del sur
  • Danaus genutia Cramer, 1779 -- tigre común, monarca india, tigre naranja
  • Danaus gilippus Cramer, 1775 -- reina
  • Danaus ismare Cramer, 1780 -- tigre de Ismare
  • Danaus melanippus Cramer, 1777 -- tigre blanco, tigre común, o tigre común del este
  • Danaus petilia Stoll, 1790
  • Danaus plexippus Linnaeus, 1758 -- monarca

Este género fue formalmente dividido en los subgéneros Danaus, Salatura, Anosia, pero ese arreglo fue abolido. Mientras la primera (las 2-3 mariposas monarcas) y Salatura (especies ismare, genutia, affinis, melanippus) apaentar ser clados, las relaciones de ellas con la otra especie, especialmente D. dorippus, no es clara.

La hibridación produce descendencia fértil, y es conocida entre algunas especies, confundiendo los datos de mtDNA; esto es especialmente verdadero en el caso de D. dorippus (Smith et al. 2005). Además, la infección mortal a machos Spiroplasma ha sido vista en D. chrysippus y probablemente ocurra también en otras especies (Jiggins et al. 2000); las consecuencias para la especiación y evolución sean probablemente similares a las observadas en infecciones con razas mata machos de la más investigada bacteria Wolbachia.

Filogenia


Tirumala septentrionis



Tirumala limniace





Danaus plexippus



Danaus erippus






Danaus genutia




Danaus melanippus



Danaus affinis





Danaus ismare





Danaus eresimus



Danaus gilippus





Danaus petilia





Danaus dorippus dorippus-2



Danaus d. bataviana





Danaus chrysippus chrysippus



Danaus c. orientis



Danaus c. alcippus






Danaus d. dorippus-1



Filogenia del genus (sin Danaus cleophile).[1]

Sinonimia de las especies y subespecies de Danaus

Tribu Danaini Boisduval, 1833

  • Danaus Kluk, 1802 ( = Danaida Latreille, 1804; = Limnas Hübner, 1806; = Danais Latreille, 1807; = Danaus Latreille, 1809; = Anosia Hübner, 1816; = Festivus Crotch, 1872; = Salatura Moore, 1880; = Nasuma Moore, 1883; = Tasitia Moore, 1883; = Danaomorpha Kremky, 1925; = Panlymnas Bryk, 1937; = Diogas d'Almeida, 1938)
    • Danaus cleophile (Godart, 1819) ( nombre original = Danais cleophile Godart, 1819)
    • Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) ( nombre original = Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758; = misippiformis Meuschen, 1781; = archippus Fabricius, 1793; = menippe Hübner, 1816; = megalippe Hübner, 1826; = leucogyne Butler, 1884; = fumosus Hulstaert, 1886; = pulchra Strecker, 1900; = nigrippus Haensch, 1909; = americanus Gunder, 1927; = nivosus Gunder, 1927; = curassavicae Fabricius, 1938; = portoriciensis Clark, 1941; = tobagi Clark, 1941; = disjuncta Dufrane, 1948; = bipunctata Dufrane, 1948; = obliterata Dufrane, 1948)
    • Danaus erippus (Cramer, 1775) ( nombre original = Papilio erippus Cramer, 1775 ( = larensis Köhler, 1929; = asclepiadis Fabricius, 1938)
    • Danaus ismare (Cramer, 1780) ( original = Papilio ismare Cramer, 1780; = ismareola Butler, 1866; = fulvus Ribbe, 1890; = celebensis Rothschild, 1892; = felicia Fruhstorfer, 1907; = goramica Fruhstorfer, 1907; = alba Morishita, 1981)
    • Danaus genutia (Cramer, 1779) ( original = Papilio genutia Cramer, 1779; = adnana Swinhoe, 1917; = albipars Talbot, 1943; = alexis Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914; = bandjira Martin, 1911; = bimana Martin, 1911; = connectens Moulton, 1921; = conspicua Butler, 1866; = grynion Fruhstorfer, 1907; = intensa Moore, 1883; = intermedia Moore, 1883; = kyllene Fruhstorfer, 1910; = laratensis Butler, 1883; = leucoglene Felder & Felder, 1865; = niasicus Fruhstorfer, 1899; = nipalensis Moore, 1877; = partita Fruhstorfer, 1897; = plexippus auctt. nec Linnaeus, 1758; = sumatrana Moore, 1883; = sumbana Talbot, 1943; = telmissus Fruhstorfer, 1910; = tuak Pryer & Cator, 1894; = tychius Fruhstorfer, 1910; = uniens Martin, 1911; = wetterensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = yuchingkini Murayama & Shimonoya, 1960 (híbrido chrysippus x genutia, Kurosawa, 1973)
    • Danaus affinis (Fabricius, 1775) ( original = Papilio affinis Fabricius, 1775; = abigar Eschscholtz, 1821; = adustus Godman & Salvin, 1882; = affinoides Fruhstorfer, 1899; = albistriga Talbot, 1943; = albonotata Howarth, 1962; = artenice Cramer, 1781; = aruana Moore, 1883; = astakos Fruhstorfer, 1906; = batjana Fruhstorfer, 1899; = bipuncta Talbot, 1943; = biseriata Butler, 1882; = bonguensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = cecilia Bouganville, 1837; = chionippe Hübner, 1823; = cometho Godman & Salvin, 1888; = coriacea Fruhstorfer, 1906; = decentralis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = decipiens Butler, 1882; = decipientis Strand, 1914; = djampeana Van Eecke, 1915; = fergussonia Fruhstorfer, 1907; = ferruginea Butler, 1876; = fuliginosa Hagen, 1894; = fulgurata Butler, 1866; = fuscata Talbot, 1943; = galacterion Fruhstorfer, 1906; = gelanor Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914; = hegesippinus Röber, 1891; = insolata Butler, 1870; = jimiensis Miller & Miller, 1978; = jobiensis Grose-Smith, 1894; = kapaura Talbot, 1943; = kawiensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = kiriwina Fruhstorfer, 1907; = leucippis Röber, 1891; = litoralis Doherty, 1891; = luxurians Fruhstorfer, 1907; = malayana Fruhstorfer, 1899; = molyssa Fruhstorfer, 1907; = mysolica Moore, 1883; = mytilene Felder & Felder, 1860; = nigrita Moore, 1883; = nore Swinhoe, 1917; = nubila Butler, 1866; = obscura Capronnier, 1886; = oesypera Talbot, 1943; = olga Swinhoe, 1917; = oros Fruhstorfer, 1907; = paradoxa Röber, 1939; = philene Stoll 1782; = piepersi Kalis, 1933; = pittakus Fruhstorfer, 1907; = pleistarchus Fruhstorfer, 1912; = pseudophilene Fruhstorfer, 1907; = pullata Butler, 1866; = rubrica Fruhstorfer, 1906; = sabrona Talbot, 1943; = sangira Fruhstorfer, 1899; = signata Talbot, 1943; = snelleni Kalis, 1933; = strephon Fruhstorfer, 1907; = subnigra Joicey & Talbot, 1922; = subnubila Fruhstorfer, 1907; = tambora Fruhstorfer, 1899; = taroena Van Eecke, 1915; = taruna Fruhstorfer, 1899; = transfuga Fruhstorfer, 1907; = tualana Talbot, 1943; = vandeldeni Kalis, 1933; = vorkeinus Röber, 1866; = wentholti Martin, 1914; = woodlarkiana Fruhstorfer, 1907)
    • Danaus melanippus (Cramer, 1777) ( original = Papilio melanippus Cramer, 1777; = hegesippus Cramer, 1777; = lotis Cramer, 1779; = thoe Hübner, 1816; = edmondii Bougainville, 1837; = nesippus C. Felder, 1862; = eurydice Butler, 1884; = celebensis Staudinger, 1889; = erebus, Röber, 1891 ; = haruhasa Doherty, 1891; = pietersii Doherty, 1891; = taimanu Doherty, 1891; = fruhstorferi Röber, 1897; = keteus Hagen, 1898; = indicus Fruhstorfer, 1899; = malossona Fruhstorfer, 1899; = lotina Fruhstorfer, 1904; = umbrosus Fruhstorfer, 1906; = philozigetes Fruhstorfer, 1907; = mezentius Fruhstorfer, 1910; = meridionigra Martin, 1913; = edwardi Van Eecke, 1914; = insularis Moulton, 1921; = albescens Röber, 1927; = kotoshonis Matsumara, 1929; = camorta Evans, 1932)
    • Danaus eresimus (Cramer, 1777) ( original = Papilio eresimus Cramer, 1777; = ares d'Almeida, 1944; = asclepidea Fabricius, 1938; = dilucida Forbes, 1939; = erginus Godman & Salvin, 1897; = estevana Talbot, 1943; = icensis Fuchs, 1954; = montezuma Talbot, 1943; = tethys Forbes, 1943)
    • Danaus plexaure (Godart, 1819) ( original = Danais plexaure Godart, 1819; = brasiliensis Capronnier, 1874)
    • Danaus gilippus (Cramer, 1775) ( original = Papilio gilippus Cramer, 1775; = berenice Cramer, 1779; = vincedoxici Hübner, 1816; = vincetoxici Hübner, 1816; = cleothera Godart, 1819; = manuja Eschscholtz, 1821; = xanthippus Felder & Felder, 1860; = thersippus Bates, 1863; = jamaicensis Bates, 1864; = strigosa Bates, 1864; = hermippus Felder & Felder, 1865; = nivosus Godman & Salvin, 1897; = esperanza Hoffman, 1924; = centralis Joicey & Talbot, 1925; = kempfferi Hall, 1925; = kerri Comstock, 1925; = vincetoxici Fabricius, 1938; = candidus Clark, 1941; = gilippina Hoffman, 1940; = wheeleri Talbot, 1943; = roedingeri Fuchs, 1954)
    • Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) ( original = Papilio chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758; = albinus Lanz, 1896; = amplifascia Talbot, 1943; = anomala Dufrane, 1948; = asclepiadis Gagliardi, 1811; = auriflava Van Eecke, 1914; = axantha Hayward, 1922; = bataviana Moore, 1883; = bipunctata Dufrane, 1948; = bowringi Moore, 1883; = candidata Hayward, 1922; = chrysipellus Strand, 1910; = clarippus Weymer, 1884; = completa Dufrane, 1948; = cratippus Felder, 1860; = deficiens Dufrane, 1948; = duplicata Dufrane, 1948; = duponti Dufrane, 1948; = evanescens Storace, 1949; = fuscippus Van Eecke, 1915; = gelderi Snellen, 1891; = hanoiensis Dufrane, 1948; = hypermnestra Stoneham, 1958; = impunctata Dufrane, 1948; = infumata Aurivillius, 1898; = joannisi Dufrane, 1948; = kanariensis Fruhstorfer, 1898; = lemeemagdalenae Lemeé, 1950; = limbata Matsumura, 1929; = luxurians Dufrane, 1948; = margarita Röber, 1926; = orientis Aurivillius, 1909; = ornata Dufrane, 1948; = petilia Stoll, 1790; = praealbata Froreich, 1928; = pseudopetilea Kalis, 1933; = radiata Dufrane, 1948; = reducta Dufrane, 1948; = rubra Van Eecke, 1915; = semialbinus Strand, 1910; = subpurpurea Matsumura, 1929; = subreducta Dufrane, 1948; = vigelii Heylaerts, 1884; = witteellus Overlaet, 1955; = yuchingkini Murayama & Shimonoya, 1960 (hybrid D. chrysippus × D. genutia)
      • Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
      • Danaus chrysippus aegyptius (Schreber, 1759) ( original = Papilio aegyptius Schreber, 1759; = Danaus chrysippus klugii Butler, 1886; = Papilio alcippus Cramer, 1777; = Danaus chrysippus liboria Hulstaert, 1931; = Danaus chrysippus alcippoides Moore, 1883; = Danaus chrysippus dorippus Klug, 1845; = Danaus chrysippus transiens Suffert, 1900)

Referencias

  • Ackery, P. & Vane-Wright, R. 1984. Milkweed Butterflies: Their Cladistics and Biology. London: British Museum (Natural History.
  • Jiggins, F. M.; Hurst, G. D. D.; Jiggins, C. D.; Schulenburg, J. H. G. v. D. & Majerus, M. E. N. 2000. The butterfly Danaus chrysippus is infected by a male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium. Parasitology 120(5): 439–446. DOI 10.1017/S0031182099005867 (resumen HTML)
  • Lushai, G., Goulson, D., Allen, J.A., Maclean, N., Smith, D.A.S., & Gordon, I.J. 2003. Incomplete sexual isolation in sympatry between subspecies of the butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus) and the creation of a hybrid zone. Heredity, 90(3), 236-246.
  • Smith, D. A. S., Gordon, I. J., Lushai, G., Goulson, D., Allen, J. A., & Maclean, N. 2002. Hybrid queen butterflies from the cross Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus) × D. gilippus (Cramer): Confirmation of species status for the parents and further support for Haldane's Rule. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 76(4), 535-544.
  • Smith, D. A. S., Lushai, G., & Allen, J. A. A. 2005. A classification of Danaus butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based upon data from morphology and DNA. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 144(2), 191-212.
  1. Smith, David A.; Gugs Lushai and John A. Allen (junio de 2005). «A classification of Danaus butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based upon data from morphology and DNA» Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol. 144. n.º 2. pp. 191–212. DOI 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00169.x.

Enlaces externos

Wikispecies

Obtenido de "Danaus (Zoolog%C3%ADa)"

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