Unforeseen+occasion

  • 141LABOR — Jewish Labor Organizations IN THE PRE STATE PERIOD Since the last decades of the 19th century, a number of sporadic labor associations have arisen in agriculture and in the printing, clothing, and building trades, as well as groups limited to a… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 142JUDEO-PERSIAN — JUDEO PERSIAN, a form of Persian used by Jews and written in Hebrew characters. The oldest Judeo Persian texts are the earliest known records in the Persian language (see judeo persian Literature below). These consist of the inscriptions of Tang… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 143MONEYLENDING — The Religious Context BIBLICAL PERIOD Deuteronomy 23:20–21 states: You shall not lend on interest to your brother, interest of food or money or anything on which interest can be charged. You may charge interest to a foreigner, but not to your… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 144SHABBETAI ẒEVI — (1626–1676), the central figure of Shabbateanism, the messianic movement named after him. Background of the Movement Shabbateanism was the largest and most momentous messianic movement in Jewish history subsequent to the destruction of the Temple …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism